In believing the universe to be static, more than a century ago Albert Einstein determined that a repulsive force must exist to counterbalance gravity to help maintain equilibrium. As part of this, he proposed what he called the cosmological constant as a mechanism to obtain a solution of the gravitational field equation. However, scientists soon realized that a static universe would be unstable. That is to say, the heterogeneity of matter within the local spacetime continuum would either lead to the runaway expansion or contraction of the universe. Thus, there must be some kind of dark energy, or what I call levity.
In 1929 Edwin Hubble made the definitive observations that proved the universe is expanding, demonstrating the presence of dark energy in the universe. In this way he set the stage for the realization that the repulsive expansion of the voids must work in such a way that there is an observable rate at which the velocity of recession of the galaxies increases with distance, which can be determined by the galactic redshift and designated by the Hubble constant. That is to say, the galaxies that are drawn together by gravity experience a blueshift of light, while the galaxies that redshift are pushed apart by levity. Regardless, following Hubble’s discovery Einstein referred to his failure to predict the idea of a dynamic universe as his greatest blunder.
Decades later, in 1980, Alan Guth and Alexei Starobinsky proposed that a negative pressure field, similar in concept to dark energy, could be responsible for the cosmic inflation that occurred in the very early universe. As such, inflationary theory postulates that a repulsive force resulted in an enormous and exponential expansion of the universe, when it was less than a second old. This is so evident that it is currently an essential feature of the Big Bang model. In line with this, some scientists have even come to suspect that this was the result of high energy density levity, very early on in the life of the universe.
Following this, the first direct evidence for dark energy came from supernova observations in 1998, when Michael Turner initially coined the term. This was a callback to Fritz Zwicky’s name for the non-baryonic substance, “dark matter”. After that, dark energy was then supported by independent observations, in 2000 and 2001. Since that time there have also been several other confirmations through observation and experimentation that all seem to indicate the presence of levity within the universe.
Unfortunately, high-precision measurements of the expansion are still required to understand how the rate changes over time and across space. Physicists and astronomers are now able to estimate the evolution of the expansion rate from the curvature of the universe and the equation of state, which is the relationship between temperature, pressure, and combined matter, energy, and vacuum energy density for a given region of the spacetime continuum. Although, to this very day, measuring the equation of state for levity still remains one of the biggest efforts in cosmology.
Regardless, in spite of what we don’t know, by standing on the shoulders of giants I am still able to get a good sense of what the nature of levity must really be like. For one thing, I think levity must be a fundamental force just like gravity. Although, if that is indeed the case, then it must be conveyed by carrier particles similar to gluons and photons, which are responsible for the strong nuclear force and electromagnetism, respectively. Ultimately, at least in my mind, that means there must be such a thing as levitons.
Furthermore, if that hypothesis is correct, then I predict that experimenters will stumble onto levitons before they find the coveted graviton, which is sort of a holy grail to particle physicists. Of course, what this really means is that there are five fundamental forces in nature, not four. Moreover, dark energy ceases to be mysterious in this context, but a paradigm shift is definitely required to make the accommodation required to accept levity. When you think about it though, any sufficiently accurate model of the universe would only make sense if it included dark energy. Plus, when you get right down to it, right now almost three-quarters of the universe is made up of levitons.
The way I see it, the fundamental forces of nature must have each decoupled from the original state of the initial condition, one after the other. Then, as the universe expanded and cooled down from the level of minimum size and maximum heat, it must have began to cross the various different transition temperatures at which force carrier particles separate out from one another. In this way, each fundamental force became a distinct kind of essential interaction through a patterned process of symmetry breaking.
attractive → repulsive → attractive → repulsive → attractive/repulsive
(gravity → levity → strong nuclear → weak nuclear → electromagnetism)
Each of the five fundamental forces is carried by messenger particles that are quanta of a particular kind of field. Gravity was the first of the bosons to permeate the continuum. Then, as the strongly symmetric structure of the universe weakened, levity was the next kind of interaction to emerge. So, the outward pressure that levitons exert caused an extremely rapid exponential inflation of the universe, in a very short period of time.
Following this, both gravity and levity played crucial roles in the formation and evolution of galaxies and voids. Over time, this resulted in the large-scale, web-like structure of the universe. Then, about six or seven billion years ago, when the universe was half of its present size, another tipping point occurred once the universe had grown so large that the push of levity was felt more than the pull of gravity. From that moment on, repulsion was no longer counterbalanced by attraction in much of the universe, thus producing a runaway expansion.
In fact, the size of the universe has doubled about one hundred times since the end of the inflationary epoch. As a result of this, over the billions of years to come and the future doublings that will result in the process, the bound galaxies like Andromeda and the Milky Way will merge and then every remaining galaxy will be pushed further and further apart, as the universe gets bigger and colder and darker, transitioning from the Big Bang to the Big Rip.
What this all means is that in a few billion years the Andromeda galaxy will finally merge with ours, meanwhile all the other galaxies will rush away from us at faster than light speed. In other words, the observable universe is getting smaller as the galaxies all recede from view. So, although the universe is getting bigger with each passing moment, we will actually see less and less of it as time goes on.
Things to note:
The amount of levitons, which are a kind of boson, increases with the volume of the universe.
The density of the universe decreases over time because the amount of matter, in the form of fermions, remains constant.
Something to understand:
The old conservation of energy laws would only be applicable to a static universe, but we live in a dynamic spacetime continuum. So, unlike Newtonian physics, Einstein’s theories indicate that energy can be lost or gained, thus allowing new dark energy to be created all the time.
P.S. If you enjoyed learning what I think about dark energy, then you might also like reading my essay about dark matter. Here’s a link to it:
The Dark Matter Mystery
About a century ago, scientists began to speculate that there might be some other kind of matter in the universe. In…
Thanks for reading.